Santal Arts and Culture

| Santal Calendar |

| Division |

| Instruments |

| Song |

| Dance |

| Ornaments |

 


| Santal Calendar

Traditional Month English Calendar Month Day of the Traditional Month Name of the Festival
Magh (magH)   3rd Day of New Moon (magH mulug pe mahaN) Mage Sim (mage sim)
     
    5th Day of New Moon (bale mulug moNMe mahaN) Bidu Chandan Bonga (biDu canDan opel mahaN)
       
Fagun (pHa.gun) Feb-March 4th Day of New Moon (phagun ca:NDo bale mulug pun mahaN) Baha Um (baha um)
    5th day of New Moon Baha Sardi (baha sa.rDi)
    6th Day of New Moon Baha Baske (baha baske)
       
Baisakh (ba.ysa.kH)   Full moon of Baisakh (ba.ysa.kH kuna.mi) Mag-mone (mag moMe)
       
Asarh (asaz) June-July   Erog-Sim (erog sim)
       
       
       
       
Aswin (sohray)   First Day of the New Moon (Bale mulug puylu mahaN) Sohrai (sohray)
       
Pausa (pus) Dec-Jan Last day of the month of Pausa  
       

 

 


 

| Division

Class

Sub-

 

 

 

 

 

pa.ris

class

 

 

 

 

 

Murmu

Jat

Champa

Chhapra

Chandana

Champa baha

Baso baha

murmu

ja.T

campa

cHapra

conDna

campa baha

baso baha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khedwar

Bital

Sada

Kedwar

Samag

Ariyal

 

Khedwar

Bitol

saDa

Kedwar

Samag

a.rya.z

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Handi

Obor

Tika

Hat

Garh

Adwa

 

ha.:Ndi

obor

tika.

hat

gaz

aDwa

Hansdah

Jat

Sikli

Kona

Tati jhari

Handi

kana

haNsDag

ja.T

sikzi

koMa

ta.ti jHa.ri

ha.Ndi

KaMa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chil Bindha

Sindur

Sirom

Bin Chatam

Singal

Sada

 

cil binDHa.

sinDur

sirom

bin caTom

Sifga.z

saDa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marndi

Jat

Sada

Rut

Rod

Gada

Kisan

ma.rndi

ja.T

SaDa

RuT

RoD

gada

kisa.M

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hesel

Sona

Miru Baha

Kelwar

Mare

Tika

 

hesel

Sona

Miru Baha

keZwar

mare

tika.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khanda jagaw

Lubug

Jugi

Mera Chakha

Badoliya

Tarab

 

Khanda jagaw

lubug

jugi

mera cakHa

baDoliya.

Tarob

 

Handi

Sadom

 

 

 

 

 

ha.Ndi

saDom

 

 

 

 

Soren

Jat

Suj

Sada

Jugi

Barsi

Barchhi

soren

ja.T

Suj

saDa

jugi

ba.rsi

ba.rcHi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bitol

mal

maz

siDub

binda siDub

mundu

 

bitol

mal

maz

siDub

binda. siDub

mundu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turuku lumang

Handi

Sipahi

Kada

Meral jo

 

 

Turuku luma.f

ha.Ndi

sipa.hi

kada

meral jo

 

Hembram

Jat

Hotril

Sada

Guwa

Basiya

Gidi

hembrom

ja.T

hOTril

saDa

guwa.

Ba.siya.

giDi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hulu

Helem

Laher

Bale

Liwid

Jugi

 

huZu

heZem

laher

bale

liwiD

jugi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Towa

sona

sODor

Handi

Hari

Geyad

 

Towa

sona

soDor

ha.Ndi

ha.ri

GeyaD

Tudu

Tug Tukur

Sada Lugli

Jat

Sange

Lad

Kalga

tudu

tug tukur

saDa lugzi

ja.T

safge

laD

kolga

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ra.ska.

cHigi

buru

angariya

jugi

ag

 

ra.ska.

Cigi

buru

afgariya.

jugi

ag

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lukuy

aNdela

haNdi

ba.rcHi

besayay

kaotiya

 

lukuy

aNDela

ha.Ndi

ba.rcHi

besayay

kawTiya.

 

Kada

Tika

Murum Enga

Singar

Sonari

 

 

kada

tika.

murum efga

sifGa.Z

sonari

 

Kisku

Kikir

ja.O

Sada

Tuluk

Bin Chatam

Samanom

kisku

kikir

ja.T

saDa

Tuzuk

bin caTom

samanom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hurul

Kala

Kisan

bitol

Bonga Chatam

Kiya

 

huruz

koza

kisa.M

bitol

bofga caTom

kiya.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sadam

Rapaj

Murum Enga

Sona

Handi

 

 

saDom

rapaJx

murum efga

sona

ha.Ndi

 

Baske

Jat

sada

ma.jhi kHili

Setag

naiki kHili

a.yub

baske

ja.T

saDa

ma.jHi kHili

seTag

nayki kHili

ayub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bhindal

laher

barchhi

Jugi

Mare

Sona

 

bHinDa.z

laher

ba.rcHi

jugi

mare

sona

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuluku

Singal

Gidi

Hola

Kala

Gola

 

Tuzuku

sifga.z

giDi

hola

kaZa

goza

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tika

Majan

Tikin

Alag

 

 

 

tika.

manan

Tikin

ozag

 

 

Besra

Jat

Sada

Chatam

Sona

Bonga

Tika

besra

ja.T

saDa

caTom

sona

bofga

tika.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bayar

Bhindal

Kala

Kahu

Sange

Gidi

 

bayar

bHinDa.z

kaza

ka.hu

safge

giDi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Handi

Jugi

Singal

Bonga Chatam

Charej

Tana

 

ha.Ndi

jugi

sifga.z

bofga caTom

cerej

taMa

 

Gola

 

 

 

 

 

 

goza

 

 

 

 

 

Chane *

Sada

Majhi khili

Naiki khili

Kala

Sona

Handi

coMe

saDa

ma.jHi kHili

na.yki kHili

kaza

sona

ha.Ndi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tika

bitol

Hante

Chandna

Gidi

Murum Enga

 

tika.

bitol

haNTe

conDna

giDi

murum efga

Gondwar **

Sada

Majhi Khili

Naiki khili

Sidub

Sona

Rag Lutur

gondwar

saDa

ma.jHi kHili

na.yki kHili

siDub

sona

rog luTur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gidi

Tuluku

Tika

Kala

Jat

Tuluku

 

giDi

Tuzuku

tika.

kaZa

ja.T

Tuzuku

 

Chandna

 

 

 

 

 

 

conDna

 

 

 

 

 

Pauriya ***

Jat

Majhi khili

Naiki Khili

Sada

Jugi

bitol

pa.wriya.

Ja.T

ma.jHi kHili

ba.yki kHili

saDa

jugi

bitol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chandu

Kelwar

Rag lutur

Handi

obor

Tuluku

 

ca.Ndu

kezwar

rog luTur

ha.Ndi

obor

Tuzuku

Dondka ****

No information

 

 

 

 

 

dondka

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Chane merged with Soren, ** Gondwar merged with Hansdah, *** Pauriya no information, **** Dondka

 

merged with everybody

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N.B. : This may not be a complete list. We will be thankful for providing us more information, if any.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top


| Instruments

 

TAMAK (Drum)(tamak)::

The structrue of the drum (like hollow half globe but tappering downwards)is made of iron plates. The upper side is covered with raw hide of bufallo. Ropes made of raw hide or plastic is used for applying tension for stretching the raw hide. Tamaks are made in different sizes as per requirement. Some can only be lifted with two persons and some are carried in bullock cart. The bigger ones are used during Sendra or mass hunting. Small and medium sizes are drummed by a person with two drum sticks for dances like lagne, dong, baha, dahar and all other forms of dances.

 

 

 

 

 


TUMDAH (Tum Dag): The structure of this instrument is made of burnt clay. It is cylindrical in shape with left side being wider than right. This hollow shape is tappered from left to right decreasingly. Bullock skin is used for covering the left side and the goat skin is used for covering the right side. Single instrument s is played by one man. This instrument is used at all social events except during the death rituals.

 

 

 

 


KARTAL(korTal): This is made of brass and is used an accompanying instruments.

 

 


SAKWA(SAKWA): It is a trumpet made of bufallo's horn or antelopes horn. This is used exclusively during the baha & mag mane (both religious festival) and at Sendra Bir (mass hunting).

BANAM(banam): Banam can either be made from a solid wooden block or can be prepared by joining differnet parts. Banam made of wooden is broader at one end and narrower at the other end. The narrower side is used as handle. Threads made of long hairs of horse is used to join both the ends. The broader end is made hollow and covered with thin leather. A stick is tied with the horse hair thread to make a small bow and is held in right hand. The wooden part is held in left side and it is played with the string held in right hand. Salga gum is pasted at the side of the wooden part which is applied to the theads of horse hair for generating necessary friction. Coconut shell is also used as substitute to the wooden block. This can accompany any song.


Triyo (Triyo): This is made of a narrow hollow bamboo. Its best size ranges from four hundred fifty to six hundred fifty mm in length and twenty to twenty five mm in diameter. Both or one side may be open. A Triya has five circular holes on the surface one being for air blowing purpose and the other four (closely situated) for controlling the flow of air for different notes.


 

BUANG (buwa.f): A shell of gourd is tied in a 6-8 feet bamboo. Both the ends of the bamboo are fitted with two sticks. Both the ends are joined with a rope through these attachments. This instrument is exclusively used during the Dasain (DasaNy) dance in the month of Dasain (Ashwin - Bhadrab).


col culi (coz cuzi)::

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Dhak (dHak):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Ghanti (gHa.nti):to be included

 

 

Top


| Song

Lyrics:

Dong

Dof

Lagne

lagMe

Baha

baha

Sohrai

sohray

Bir

bir

Ulasi

ula.si
 
 
 
 

Top


| Dance

 

Dong
Dof
 
Lagne
lagMe
 
Pata
paTa
 
Rinjha
rinjHa.
 
Dongel
Dofgez
 
Baha
baha
 
Sohrai
sohray
 
Dasain
DasaNy
 
Drama
drama
 
Danta
danta
 

Dahar

dahar
 
Jhika
jHika.
 
 

 


 

| Ornaments(SILVER)

 

PAN KANTA (PAn kanta)

 

TAKA MALA (taka mala) - Necklace

 

 

   

BAJU (BA.JU)- Anklets

 

 

Danda Jhinjir (daNda jHinjir) Waistlace

     

 

SINTHI (SInTHi)

 

 

PETRA (PEtra) Bracelet

 

CHUR (CUR) Bracelet


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